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Hereward the Wake

Hereward the Wake



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A lenda e a história de Hereward the Wake

Hereward the Wake (que foi entendido como o vigilante) foi um herói folclórico inglês que serviu de inspiração inicial para a lenda de Robin Hood. Existem registros muito bons verificando sua existência, mas algumas histórias relacionadas a ele parecem obviamente exageradas.

No século 11, os nativos do norte da França, conhecidos como normandos e liderados por Guilherme, o Conquistador, estavam tentando conquistar a Grã-Bretanha. Já ocupando a Grã-Bretanha estavam os anglo-saxões, que eram germânicos. A evidência de ambas as heranças pode ser vista na língua inglesa moderna, que combina a gramática germânica com o vocabulário francês e alguns vestígios de latim.

Hereward era de South Lincolnshire que, devido à sua localização no norte da Inglaterra, foi uma das últimas áreas a sentir o domínio do governo normando. Ele teria sido um jovem muito selvagem, com olhos de duas cores diferentes, que constantemente discutia com o pai.

Hereward é conhecido por sua posição contra Guilherme, o Conquistador. Um grupo de dinamarqueses (também conhecidos como vikings) o pegou, saqueou a abadia em Peterborough e fugiu para a Ilse de Ely. Aqui podemos ver paralelos com Robin Hood e seus homens alegres. Por fim, Guilherme, o Conquistador, venceu, mas não antes de Hereward ter se tornado um grande nome como a epítome da cavalaria anglo-saxã.


Hereward the Wake

Através da névoa do passado longínquo da história inglesa, surge diante de nossa visão uma figura notável, a de Hereward the Wake, o "último dos saxões", como foi apropriadamente chamado, um herói do romance talvez mais do que da história , mas em alguns aspectos o guerreiro mais nobre que lutou pela Inglaterra Saxônica contra os normandos. Sua história é um tecido em que fios de fato e fantasia parecem igualmente entrelaçados com grande parte de sua vida, na verdade, somos ignorantes, e a tradição cercou esta parte de sua biografia com contos de feitos em grande parte imaginários, mas ele é um personagem da história como bem como do folclore, e sua verdadeira história está repleta dos mais ricos elementos do romance. É esse notável herói da velha Inglaterra com quem temos agora de lidar.

Ninguém pode ter certeza de onde Hereward nasceu, embora muito provavelmente o condado de Lincolnshire possa reivindicar a honra. Dizem que ele era herdeiro do senhorio de Bourne, naquele condado. A tradição & # 8212por que ainda não alcançamos os limites da realidade & # 8212 diz que ele era um jovem selvagem e rebelde, desrespeitoso com o clero, desobediente com seus pais e tão geralmente incontrolável que no final seu pai o baniu de sua casa.

O truculento rapaz pouco se incomodou com isso. Ele tinha dentro de si o espírito de um errante e fora da lei, mas era um homem apto a deixar sua marca onde quer que seus pés caíssem. Na Escócia, quando ainda era um menino, ele matou, sozinho, um grande urso, & # 8212 um feito altamente considerado naquela época, quando todas as batalhas com homens e animais eram corpo a corpo. Em seguida, ouvimos falar dele na Cornualha, um de cuja raça de gigantes Hereward achou reservado para suas proezas. Era um sujeito de membros poderosos e língua arrogante, vasto em força e terrível na guerra, como dizia sua própria história. Hereward lutou com ele, e o gigante parou de se gabar. A Cornualha tinha menos um gigante. Em seguida, ele procurou a Irlanda e prestou serviço de aldeão nas guerras daquela ilha inquieta. Pegando o navio de lá, ele seguiu para Flandres, onde a lenda o credita por feitos maravilhosos. A batalha e o pão eram o alimento de sua existência, um tão necessário para ele quanto o outro, e uma viagem de algumas centenas de quilômetros, com a esperança de uma luta dura no final, era para ele apenas um feriado.

Tal é o Hereward a quem a tradição nos apresenta, um ídolo da música e da história popular, e sem dúvida um guerreiro de coragem e habilidade incomuns, ágil e forte, pronto para cada labuta e perigo, e tão alerta e vigilante que os homens o chamavam de Despertar. Este homem vigoroso e valente nasceu para ser o herói e campeão dos ingleses, em sua luta final pela liberdade contra seus inimigos normandos.

Uma nova paixão entrou na alma de Hereward em Flandres, a do amor. Lá ele conheceu e cortejou uma bela senhora, de nome Torfrida, que se tornou sua esposa. Ela provou ser uma fiel companheira, seu bom camarada em suas andanças, seu sábio conselheiro na guerra e uma influência sempre suavizante na vida do feroz guerreiro. Até então, a espada tinha sido sua amante, seu temperamento o turbulento e apressado dos moradores do acampamento. Daí em diante, ele devia uma lealdade dividida ao amor e à espada, e tornou-se mais brando no humor, mais gentil e mais misericordioso na disposição, à medida que a vida avançava.

Para este inglês errante além-mar, chegaram notícias de desastres tristes em sua terra natal. Harold e seu exército foram derrubados em Hastings, e Norman William estava no trono. Os condes normandos haviam se apoderado de mansões inglesas por toda parte. Os rudes normandos, enobrecidos no campo de batalha, estavam roubando e escravizando os antigos proprietários das terras. Os ingleses haviam subido no norte e Guilherme atormentou condados inteiros, deixando um deserto onde encontrou uma terra fértil e próspera. Os sofrimentos dos ingleses em casa tocaram o coração deste genuíno inglês no exterior. Hereward, o Wake, reuniu um bando de guerreiros robustos, embarcou e zarpou para sua terra natal.

E agora, em grande parte, deixamos o reino da lenda e entramos no domínio dos fatos. Hereward doravante é um personagem histórico, mas uma história sua com fragmentos de romance ainda agarrados às suas saias. Em primeiro lugar, a história credita-lhe a descida em seu ancestral salão de Bourne, então na posse dos normandos, seu pai foi expulso de seu domínio, e agora em seu túmulo. Hereward lidou com os normandos como Ulisses havia feito com os pretendentes, e quando o salão era seu, poucos sobraram para contar a história. Dali, não se importando em ser confinado pelo inimigo dentro de paredes de pedra, ele marchou alegremente e procurou um refúgio mais seguro em outro lugar.

Gostaríamos de aceitar essa descida sobre Bourne como um fato. Ele contém os elementos de uma justa retribuição. Mas devemos admitir que é um dos fragmentos de romance de que falamos, uma daquelas histórias interessantes que os homens acreditam ser verdadeiras porque gostariam que fossem verdadeiras, possivelmente com uma base sólida, certamente com muito embelezamento.

Onde encontramos Hereward pela primeira vez é no coração da região dos pântanos, no leste da Inglaterra. Aqui, em Ely, em Cambridgeshire, um bando de ingleses havia formado o que chamavam de "acampamento de refúgio", de onde saíam a intervalos em excursões contra os normandos. A Inglaterra não tinha refúgio mais seguro para seus filhos patriotas. Ely era praticamente uma ilha, cercada por pântanos aquáticos por todos os lados. Espreitando atrás dos juncos e juncos desses pântanos, e escondido por suas exalações nebulosas, aquele bando fiel há muito desafiava seus inimigos.

Aqui veio Hereward com seus seguidores guerreiros e rapidamente se viu à frente do bando de refugiados patriotas. A história se repetia. Séculos antes, o rei Alfredo havia procurado justamente esse abrigo contra os dinamarqueses e incomodado seus inimigos como Hereward agora começava a perturbar os dele.

Os exilados do acampamento de refúgio encontraram sangue novo em sua organização quando Hereward se tornou seu líder. Suas débeis investidas foram rapidamente substituídas por outras ousadas. Saindo como vespas de seus ninhos, Hereward e seus valentes seguidores picaram fortemente os invasores normandos, hesitando em não atacá-los onde quer que fossem encontrados, cortando bandos armados, arrancando deles os despojos de que haviam roubado os saxões e voando de volta para seu junco. abrigo antes que seus inimigos pudessem se reunir em força.

Das façanhas desse bando de guerreiros ativos, mas uma é contada na íntegra e vale a pena repetir. A Abadia de Peterborough, não muito distante de Ely, submeteu-se ao governo normando e ganhou um abade normando, de nome Turold. Isso enfureceu os ingleses em Ely, e eles invadiram o povoado. Nenhum grande dano foi pretendido. Comida e alguns estragos menores teriam satisfeito os invasores. Mas os monges amedrontados, em vez de se atirarem à clemência de seus conterrâneos, enviaram uma mensagem às pressas a Turold. Isso enfureceu o bando de invasores, composto em parte por ingleses, em parte por dinamarqueses que pouco se importavam com os privilégios da igreja. Levados à fúria, eles atearam fogo na casa dos monges e na cidade, e apenas uma casa escapou das chamas. Em seguida, eles atacaram o mosteiro, os monges voando para salvar suas vidas. Todo o bando de fora-da-lei irrompeu como lobos no minter, que eles rapidamente limparam de seus tesouros. Aqui alguns escalaram até o grande rood e carregaram seus ornamentos de ouro. Lá outros seguiram até a torre, onde estava escondido o cajado pastoral de ouro e prata. Santuários, roods, livros, paramentos, dinheiro, tesouros de todos os tipos desapareceram, e quando o Abade Turold apareceu com um grupo de normandos armados, ele encontrou apenas as paredes nuas da igreja e as cinzas da cidade, com apenas um monge doente para representam o monastério recentemente próspero. Se Hereward participou ou não desse caso, a história não diz.

O rei Guilherme até então havia desconsiderado esse refúgio patriota e os atos ousados ​​do valente Hereward. Além disso, toda a Inglaterra havia se submetido à sua autoridade, e ele estava muito ocupado no trabalho de fazer um reino feudal da Inglaterra livre para se preocupar com um pequeno centro de insurreição. Mas ocorreu um evento que o levou a olhar para Hereward com olhos mais hostis.

Entre aqueles que haviam jurado fidelidade a ele, após a derrota de Harold em Hastings, estavam Edwin e Morcar, os condes da Mércia e Northumberland. Eles foram confirmados com a posse de suas propriedades e dignidades e permaneceram fiéis a Guilherme durante a insurreição geral do norte da Inglaterra. Com o passar do tempo, porém, sua posição se tornou insuportável. O rei falhou em dar-lhes sua confiança, os cortesãos invejaram sua riqueza e títulos e os difamou perante o rei. Sua dignidade de posição foi perdida no tribunal, sua segurança mesmo estando em perigo, eles resolveram, quando tarde demais, imitar seu conterrâneo mais corajoso e desferir um golpe para o lar e a liberdade. Edwin buscou seu domínio no norte, inclinado à insurreição. Morcar fez seu caminho para a Ilha de Ely, onde passou a servir com seus seguidores e com outros nobres ingleses, sob o bravo Hereward, feliz por encontrar um lugar onde um homem de verdadeiro sangue inglês ainda pudesse colocar os pés em liberdade.

Sua adesão trouxe ruína em vez de força para Hereward. Se William podia se dar ao luxo de negligenciar um bando de bandidos nos pântanos, ele não poderia ficar com esses dois grandes condes em armas contra ele. Havia forças no norte para atender Edwin Mortar e Hereward precisava ser cuidado.

Reunindo um exército, William marchou para a região dos pântanos e se preparou para atacar os últimos ingleses em seu quase inacessível acampamento de refúgio. Ele já havia construído um castelo em Cambridge, e aqui ele morava enquanto dirigia seu ataque contra os bandidos dos pântanos.

A tarefa diante dele não era fácil, diante de um oponente tão hábil e vigilante como Hereward the Wake. Os normandos daquela região o achavam tão onipresente e tão constantemente vitorioso que atribuíram seu sucesso ao encantamento e até mesmo Guilherme, que não estava livre das superstições de sua época, parecia imaginar que tinha um feiticeiro como inimigo. Encantador ou não, entretanto, ele deveria ser tratado como um soldado, e havia apenas uma maneira de ser alcançado. Os soldados normandos fortemente armados não conseguiram atravessar o pântano. De um lado, a Ilha de Ely podia ser abordada por navios, mas era aqui tão fortemente defendida que os navios do rei não conseguiram avançar contra as obras de Hereward. Percebendo que seu ataque pela água havia fracassado, William começou a construir uma passagem elevada, de três quilômetros de extensão, através dos pântanos da terra seca até a ilha.

Este não foi um trabalho fútil. Havia uma profundidade considerável de lama e água para encher, e pedras e troncos de árvores foram trazidos para o propósito de toda a região circundante, as árvores sendo cobertas com peles como proteção contra o fogo. O trabalho não prosseguiu em paz. Hereward e seus homens contestaram seu progresso em todos os pontos, atacaram os trabalhadores com dardos e flechas dos barcos leves em que navegavam nas águas dos pântanos e, apesar das peles, conseguiram atear fogo à madeira da ponte. Mais de uma vez teve que ser reconstruído mais de uma vez, quebrou sob o peso dos cavaleiros normandos e soldados, que se aglomeraram sobre ele em seus esforços para alcançar a ilha, e muitos desses guerreiros ansiosos, oprimidos por o fardo de sua armadura encontrou uma morte sombria na lama e na água dos pântanos.

Hereward lutou com sua coragem costumeira, habilidade guerreira e vigilância incessante, e não deu ao rei Guilherme nenhuma tarefa fácil, apesar da força de seu exército e da abundância de seus recursos. Mas tal competição, contra um inimigo tão habilidoso como Guilherme, o Conquistador, e com tamanha disparidade de números, poderia ter apenas um fim. Hereward desferiu um último golpe tão valente pela Inglaterra que conquistou a admiração de seu grande oponente, mas William não era homem para se contentar com nada menos que a vitória, e cada ato de defesa bem-sucedido por parte dos ingleses era recebido por um novo movimento de assalto. Apesar de todos os esforços de Hereward, a passagem lenta mas seguramente avançou pelos pântanos.

Mas o principal perigo de Hereward estava para trás, e não antes, na ilha, e não no continente. Suas ascensões de nobres e comuns colocaram um forte corpo de homens sob seu comando, com os quais ele poderia ter sido capaz de enfrentar as abordagens de Guilherme por navio e ponte, se a traição não estivesse enraizada na própria ilha. Com a guerra em sua frente e a traição em sua retaguarda, o galante Wake tinha um duplo perigo para enfrentar.

Isso nos leva a uma cena pitoresca, habilmente pintada pelos antigos cronistas. Ely teve sua abadia uma contraparte da de Peterborough. Thurston, o abade, nasceu na Inglaterra, assim como os monges sob seu comando pastoral, e por muito tempo os presidiários encapuzados da abadia e os patriotas armados do Campo de Refúgio viveram em doce acordo. No refeitório dos monges da abadia e guerreiros sentavam-se lado a lado à mesa, sua conversa às refeições sendo duvidosa menos entre assuntos espirituais e assuntos temporais, enquanto das paredes e do telhado pendiam os braços dos guerreiros, harmoniosamente misturados com os emblemas do Igreja. Era uma fotografia do casamento entre Igreja e Estado, digna de ser reproduzida na tela.

No entanto, o rei William sabia como lidar com o abade Thurston. As terras pertencentes ao mosteiro ficavam além dos pântanos, e sobre elas o rei colocou a mão rude do direito real, como garantia do que aconteceria quando o próprio mosteiro caísse em suas mãos. Uma onda de terror abalou o coração do abade e sua família de monges. Para eles, parecia que o céu estava prestes a cair, e que seria mais sábio ficar de pé.

Enquanto os monges de Ely revolviam essa ameaça de desastre em suas almas, a maré de ataque e defesa continuava. O passadiço de William avançava lentamente através dos pântanos. Hereward o atacou com fogo e espada, e atormentou as terras do rei por meio de ataques repentinos. Diz-se que, como o rei Alfredo antes dele, ele mais de uma vez visitou o acampamento dos normandos disfarçado e espiou seus métodos e meios de guerra.

Há uma história ligada a esse empreendimento bélico tão significativo na época que deve ser contada. Quer William acreditasse ou não que Hereward fosse um feiticeiro, ele tomou medidas para derrotar o encantamento, se algum existisse. Uma velha, que tinha a reputação de ser feiticeira, foi trazida ao acampamento real e seus serviços dedicados à causa do rei. Uma torre de madeira foi construída e empurrada ao longo da ponte em frente às tropas, a velha dentro dela ativamente distribuindo seus encantamentos e invocando os poderes da bruxaria sobre a cabeça de Hereward. Infelizmente para ela, Hereward tentou contra sua feitiçaria com o cabo de vassoura o encantamento da marca, colocando fogo na torre e queimando-a junto com a feiticeira dentro dela. Dificilmente poderíamos voltar a uma data posterior ao século XI para encontrar tal absurdo quanto possível, mas naqueles dias de superstição até mesmo um homem como Guilherme, o Conquistador, era capaz disso.

Como a disputa teria terminado se a traição estivesse ausente, não é fácil dizer. O que aconteceu foi que o abade Thurston e seus monges deram um fim repentino e desastroso ao cerco. Eles mostraram ao rei uma forma secreta de acesso à ilha, e os guerreiros de Guilherme pegaram o acampamento de Hereward de surpresa. O que se seguiu quase não precisa ser contado. Uma luta feroz e afiada, homens caindo e morrendo aos montes, os guerreiros de William pesadamente armados pressionando pesadamente sobre as fileiras dos ingleses mais vestidos com roupas leves, e a derrota final e rendição, completam a história do ataque a Ely.

William havia vencido, mas Hereward ainda o desafiou. Dando seu último golpe em defesa, o líder galante, com um pequeno bando de seguidores escolhidos, abriu uma trilha de sangue através das fileiras normandas e abriu caminho para uma pequena frota de navios que ele manteve armada e guardada para tal emergência. A vela foi levantada e, rio abaixo, eles dispararam para o mar aberto, ainda desafiando o poder de Norman William.

Temos mais duas linhas de história a seguir, uma de história, outra de romance, uma da recompensa dos monges por sua traição, a outra da história posterior de Hereward, o Vigília. O abade Thurston apressou-se em apresentar sua apresentação ao rei. Ele e os internos do mosteiro procuraram a corte, então em Warwick, e humildemente imploraram pelo favor e proteção reais. A história conta que William retribuiu a visita com uma viagem a Ely, onde entrou na igreja enquanto os monges, todos inconscientes da visita real, estavam jantando no refeitório. O rei ficou humildemente a uma distância do santuário, como não digno de se aproximar dele, mas enviou uma marca de ouro para ser oferecida como seu tributo sobre o altar.

Nesse ínterim, um certo Gilberto de Clara entrou no refeitório e perguntou aos monges que festejavam se não deveriam jantar em outra hora e se não seria sensato reprimir a fome enquanto o rei Guilherme estivesse na igreja. Como um bando de pombos assustados, os monges se levantaram, sem apetite, e correram tumultuosamente em direção à igreja. Eles chegaram tarde demais. William se foi. Mas em sua curta visita, ele havia deixado um legado muito indesejável, marcando o local de um castelo dentro do recinto do mosteiro e dando ordens para sua construção imediata por meio de trabalhos forçados.

O abade Thurston finalmente comprou a paz do rei a um preço alto, pagando-lhe trezentas marcas de prata por sua única marca de ouro. Nem foi esse o fim. As marcas de prata provaram ser leves. Para apaziguar a ira do rei com isso, outros trezentos marcos de prata foram oferecidos, e o rei Guilherme graciosamente permitiu que eles dissessem suas orações em paz. Sua traição a Hereward não foi lucrativa para os traidores.

Se agora retornarmos à história de Hereward, o Despertar, devemos mais uma vez deixar o reino da história para o da lenda, pois o que mais é dito sobre ele, embora sem dúvida baseado em fatos, é estritamente lendário na estrutura. Aterrissando na costa de Lincolnshire, os fugitivos abandonaram seus navios leves pelas extensas florestas daquela região e viveram por muito tempo a vida de foragidos na densa floresta próxima à casa ancestral de Hereward, Bourne. Como um Robin Hood anterior, o valente Wake fez da floresta sua casa e dos normandos sua presa, cobrindo nove condados em suas ousadas excursões, que se estendeu até a distante cidade de Warwick. A abadia de Peterborough, com seu abade normando, foi objeto de sua detestação especial, e mais de uma vez Turold e seus monges foram postos em fuga, enquanto a abadia cedia uma parte de seus tesouros aos ousados ​​agressores.

Por quanto tempo Hereward e seus homens moraram na floresta, não podemos dizer. Eles desafiaram ali os maiores esforços de seus inimigos, e o rei Guilherme, cuja admiração por seu desafiador inimigo não diminuíra, desesperando-se de reduzi-lo à força, fez-lhe aberturas de paz. Hereward estava pronto para eles. A essa altura, ele viu claramente que o jugo normando estava preso com muita firmeza ao pescoço da Inglaterra para ser jogado fora. Ele lutou enquanto lutar era útil. A rendição apenas permaneceu. Um dia chegou finalmente em que ele cavalgou da floresta com quarenta guerreiros robustos em suas costas, fez o seu caminho para a residência real de Winchester e atracou nos portões da cidade, ordenando aos guardas que levassem a notícia ao conquistador de que Hereward, o Wake havia chegado.

William o recebeu de bom grado. Ele conhecia o valor de uma alma valente e, a partir de então, foi um caloroso amigo de Hereward, que, de sua parte, permaneceu tão leal e fiel ao rei quanto fora forte e zeloso contra ele. E assim os anos se passaram, Hereward nas boas graças da corte, e ele e Torfrida, sua esposa flamenga, vivendo felizes no castelo que a generosidade de Guilherme lhes proporcionara.

Há mais de uma história do destino final de Hereward. Um relato diz que ele terminou seus dias em paz. O outro, mais de acordo com o espírito da época e o ódio e ciúme sentido por muitos dos nobres normandos contra este protegido inglês do rei, é tão comovente em seus detalhes que serve como um encerramento adequado para o Romance hereward.

A história conta que ele manteve estreita vigilância e guarda em sua casa contra seus muitos inimigos. Mas, em uma ocasião, seu capelão, Ethelward, então de vigia, adormeceu em seu posto. Um bando de normandos se aproximava, que invadiu a casa sem avisar e atacou Hereward sozinho em seu salão.

Ele mal teve tempo de lançar sua armadura quando seus inimigos o atacaram e o atacaram com espada e lança. A luta que se seguiu teria alegrado a alma de um antigo viking. Hereward o envolveu com uma energia tão selvagem que o chão logo ficou coberto com os cadáveres de seus inimigos e ficou vermelho com seu sangue. Finalmente, a lança quebrou na mão do herói. Em seguida, ele agarrou sua espada e fez com ela poderosos feitos de valor. Isso também foi quebrado pelo estresse da luta. Seu escudo era a única arma que lhe restava, e ele o usou com tanto vigor e habilidade que, antes de fazê-lo, quinze normandos jaziam mortos no chão.

Quatro de seus inimigos ficaram atrás dele e o feriram nas costas. O grande guerreiro caiu de joelhos. Um cavaleiro bretão, Ralph de Del, avançou sobre ele, mas achou o leão ferido ainda perigoso. Com um último esforço desesperado, Hereward deu-lhe um golpe mortal com seu escudo, e Breton e Saxon caíram mortos juntos no chão. Outro dos agressores, de nome Asselin, agora cortou a cabeça deste último defensor da Inglaterra Saxônica e, segurando-a no ar, jurou por Deus e por seu poder que nunca antes tinha visto um homem com tanto valor e força, e que se houvesse mais três como ele na terra, os franceses teriam sido expulsos da Inglaterra ou mortos em seu solo.

E assim termina a emocionante história de Hereward the Wake, aquele poderoso homem da antiguidade.


A 'Verdadeira' História de Hereward the Wake

10 comentários:

Uma linda história - agradeço seus esforços meticulosos para obter as genealogias certas. Mas tenho uma pergunta: se a primeira esposa de Hereward, Turfrida, se tornou freira, como ele poderia se casar de novo? Afinal, ela ainda estava viva e bem, apenas separada dele. Talvez ela tivesse morrido em um covent antes de seu segundo casamento?

Parece que o divórcio era simplesmente uma questão de repudiar alguém. A mulher que perseguia Hereward também não era viúva. Na época, poucas pessoas eram casadas por um padre.
As genealogias mostram lealdades conflitantes que Hereward pode ter tido e ajudam a explicar por que ele se afastou da Batalha de Hastings. Ele claramente se jogou na rebelião, mas não está claro se ele realmente se importava com a subjugação dos ingleses ou se era outra oportunidade para ele.

Tenho certeza de que sua lealdade era muito mais complexa do que qualquer coisa apresentada em qualquer filme crasso de Robin Hood). Afinal, se você sobrevivesse, você seria o vencedor.

Lindo novo design de blog aliás - muito elegante e organizado!

Eu já te perdi?
Er, sim! Acho que preciso sentar com uma genealogia e uma caneca grande de chá (o chá é para ajudar meu cérebro a trabalhar)

Também gosto do seu novo design.

Tenho certeza de que sua lealdade era muito mais complexa do que qualquer coisa apresentada em qualquer filme crasso de Robin Hood
Mas Robin Hood, Príncipe dos Ladrões é muito divertido, anacrônico!

Mas Robin Hood, Príncipe dos Ladrões é muito divertido, anacrônico!

Sim, é isso. só que seria mais divertido para mim se fosse um pouquinho mais real. Eu sei, ouça-me com todas essas análises de YA que escrevi até agora. ) De alguma forma, algumas ficções são mais atraentes do que outras. Robin poderia ter se tornado um herói em tamanho real com todas aquelas complexidades e desafios de sua época. Ele é apresentado como uma boneca de pano com um arco.

Obrigado a ambos pelos elogios.
Uma coisa que me incomoda na & # 39história & # 39 é que tenho esse enorme intervalo de 20 anos em que nada acontece. Será que Hereward realmente se contentou em pendurar sua espada e cuidar de seu jardim? Ele tinha apenas 30 anos quando se reconciliou com o rei. Bohemond estava apenas começando naquele ponto.
O registro e Gesta estão em silêncio neste ponto, é por isso que algumas pessoas pensam que ele saiu novamente e se juntou à Guarda Varangiana. Era bastante comum para nobres saxões deslocados.

Concordo que um nobre de 30 anos com bastante experiência em guerra deveria ter sido mais ativo durante o melhor período de sua vida. Tenho certeza de que ele pode ter ingressado na Guarda, mas também não me surpreende que haja algumas lacunas nos registros. Afinal, ele dificilmente gostaria de anunciar esse fato. A verdade é que a guarda começou a ver uma inclusão crescente de anglo-saxões após a invasão bem-sucedida da Inglaterra pelos normandos. Em 1088, um grande número de anglo-saxões e dinamarqueses emigrou para o Império Bizantino por meio do Mediterrâneo. Uma fonte tem mais de 5.000 deles chegando em 235 navios. Aqueles que não ingressaram no serviço imperial estabeleceram-se na costa do Mar Negro, mas aqueles que o fizeram tornaram-se tão vitais para os Varangians que a partir daquele ponto a Guarda passou a ser comumente chamada de Englinbarrangoi (Anglo-Varangians). É muito provável que Hereward estivesse entre eles. Ele tinha o caráter e a constituição certos para isso.

É verdade, mas o autor do Gesta usou duas testemunhas oculares e uma biografia escrita pelo padre de Hereward para fazer sua biografia. Como mostrei no artigo de Van Hout, grande parte da história é verdadeira. Que ele viveu uma vida pacífica, morrendo de velhice e foi enterrado na Abadia de Croyland é apoiado pelo Liber Eliensis e Chronicle of Croyland Abbey. Embora Hereward encontrando Bohemond também tivesse sido interessante.
Meu professor também achou que teve uma morte pacífica.


Hereward & quotThe Exile & quot, thegn da Mércia

O historiador Paul Dalton escreveu um excelente artigo intitulado & quotThe Outlaw Hereward 'the Wake': His Companions and Enemies & quot [Capítulo 1, pp. 7-36, em Fora-da-lei na Inglaterra medieval e moderna: Crime, Governo e Sociedade c. 1066-1600 editado por John C. Appleby e Paul Dalton, Ashgate Publishing, 2009. Está disponível no Google Books.

Trecho de A Brief History of The Anglo -Saxons & quot de Geoffrey Hindley “Com o país em turbulência, 'o povo inglês dos Fens' se aglomerou em Swein, na Dinamarca, pensando que seu exército planejava ocupar a região. Mais ou menos nessa época, os monges de Peterborourgh ouviram que um de seus inquilinos, Hereward de Bourne, estava marchando na Abadia porque ele e seus homens ouviram que, com a morte do Abade Brand, o Conquistador entregou o lugar ao soldado normando / clérigo Turold de Fecamp. No que se seguiu, o outrora 'bairro dourado' caiu em 'bairro miserável', saqueado de seus tesouros por inimigos e amigos, alegando salvá-los dos invasores alienígenas. Piratas, somos informados, navegaram até o cais da Catedral e tentaram invadir. Quando os monges voltaram, os atacantes incendiaram. Eles então saquearam o ouro da abadia, desde a coroa na cabeça do Cristo crucificado pendurada na tela até muitas outras cruzes e ornamentos de ouro e prata de todos os tipos, bem como manuscritos preciosos. Até mesmo o braço talismânico de St. Oswald foi carregado para os navios e, com o resto do butim levado para Ely - supostamente para ficar longe das depredações dos normandos.

Lá, Hereward, conhecido na história e na lenda como Hereward the Wake, junto com o Conde Morcar da Mércia e o Bispo Aelfwine de Durham, resistiu a centenas de rebeldes desesperados, com a esperança fixada na frota dinamarquesa diante das notícias do progresso do Rei William, A Abadia de Ely, em sua ilha entre os pântanos dos pântanos, era adequada para uma fortaleza, mas, como em Athelney, a resistência de Alfred não podia ser infinita.

Na primavera, William havia esfolado seu reino rebelde de volta à obediência. Em uma campanha que o historiador David Douglas classificou como "uma das realizações militares mais notáveis ​​da época", ele foi mais uma vez mestre. Nesse quartilho, os dinamarqueses chegaram a um acordo com o rei normando e navegaram para a Dinamarca, com muito butim inglês em seus porões. Agora, também, os líderes da causa perdida de Ely fizeram o que puderam enquanto Hereward escapava para a meia-luz entre a lenda e a história. O Conquistador teria o perdoado e ele teria cruzado para a França. Lá, de acordo com Geoffrey Gaimar, o historiador francês dos ingleses, escrevendo seu & quotEstoire des Agnleis & quot para a esposa de um lorde normando em Lincolnshire, Hereward foi jogado ao chão e destruído por um grupo de normandos vingativos. . & quot

A pesquisa sugere que ele é filho do dinamarquês Asketil

LEOFRIC. Os nomes do Monastério Genealogia Fundatoris de Coventry & # x201cLeofricum postea comitem, e Edwinum occisum por Walenses, e Normannum occisum cum Edrico duce Merciorum por Cnutonem regem & # x201d como filhos de & # x201cLeofwinus vem Leicdestri & # 223e6 & # x00e6. Os De Gestis Herwardi Saxonis nomeiam & quotLefricus de Brunne, nepos comitis Radulfi cognominati Scalre & quot, ao registrar que ele era pai de & quotHerwardus & quot [224]. Este & quotcomitis Radulfi & # x2026Scalre & quot não foi identificado de outra forma nem qualquer relação possível com Leofric. Simeão de Durham registra que o rei Canuto nomeou & quotLeofric & quot como conde da Mércia depois que seu irmão Northman foi morto em 1017 [225], embora isso aparentemente tenha ocorrido durante a vida de seu pai. Ele e sua esposa fundaram a abadia de Coventry em 1043 [226]. & # x201cLeofricus vem & # x201d fundou o mosteiro de Coventry por carta não datada [227]. & # x201dLeofricus vem & # x2026et conjux mea Godgyve & # x201d doou uma propriedade ao Mosteiro de Evesham por carta não datada que denomina & # x201cfrater meus Normannus & # x201d [228].

m GODGIFU, irmã de THOROLD de Bukenhale, xerife de Lincolnshire, filha de ---. She is named as wife of Earl Leofric by Florence of Worcester, who specifies that she and her husband founded monasteries at Leominster, Wenlock, Chester and Stowe[229]. The Annals of Peterborough record that “Thoroldus vicecomes et frater germanus Godivæ comitissæ Leycestriæ” founded Spalding Monastery in 1052[230]. Her family origin is also indicated by the undated charter under which “Thoroldus de Bukenhale…vicecomiti” donated Spalding monastery to Croyland abbey which names 𠇍omino meo Leofrico comite Leicestriæ et𠉬omitissa sua domina Godiva sorore mea𠉮t cognati mei comitis Algari primogeniti et hæredis eorum”[231]. The De Gestis Herwardi Saxonis names "Aediva trinepta Oslaci ducis" as wife of "Lefricus de Brunne, nepos comitis Radulfi cognominati Scalre", when recording that they were parents of "Herwardus"[232]. "Oslaci ducis" could be "Oslac" recorded in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle as "earl [of Northumbria]" in 966[233], but any precise relationship has not been identified. ”Leofricus comes𠉮t conjux mea Godgyve” donated property to Evesham Monastery by undated charter which names 𠇏rater meus Normannus”[234]. Godgifu wife of Leofric granted property to St Mary's, Stow by charter dated [1054/57][235]. She was the Lady Godiva of legend.

Leofric & his wife had [two] children:

2. [HEREWARD . The De Gestis Herwardi Saxonis names "Herwardus" as son of "Lefricus de Brunne, nepos comitis Radulfi cognominati Scalre" and his wife "Aediva trinepta Oslaci ducis", being the "Hereward the Wake" of semi-legend[260].

m firstly TURFRIDA, daughter of ---. The De Gestis Herwardi Saxonis records that "Herwardus" married "Turfrida", adding in a later passage that she became a nun "in Cruland" after she was repudiated[261].

m secondly as her second husband, ---, widow of DOLFIN, daughter of ---. The De Gestis Herwardi Saxonis records that "Herwardus" married secondly "uxor Dolfini comitis"[262].]

Hereward is founder of the Howard family.

HEREWARD THE WAKE, The Last True Englishman and Hero of Britain

Hereward was the son of Leofric, the Earl of Mercia and his mother was Lady Godiva. He was the uncle of Edwin and Morcar who were the last surviving members of the English royal house and he was born at Bourne in Lincolnshire where the Domesday Book confirms that he held lands there and also in Warwickshire and Worcestershire.

Earl Leofric was very harsh and the people of Coventry suffered greatly because of him. His wife, Lady Godiva was very different, she was a gentle, pious, loving woman who had already won an almost saintly reputation for sympathy and pity by her sacrifice to save her husbands oppressed citizens at Coventry, where her pleading won relief for them from the harsh earl on the pitiless condition of her never-forgotten ride. Happily her gentle self-suppression awoke a nobler spirit in her husband and enabled him to play a worthier part in England’s history.

Lady Godiva wanted Hereward to become a monk, but Hereward would have none of it and refused to study. He was a wild wayward lad, with long golden curls, eyes of different colours, one grey, and one blue. He had great breadth and strength of limb, and a wild and ungovernable temper, which made him difficult to control. He spent his time wrestling, boxing, fighting, and all manly exercises. Despairing of making an ecclesiastic of him, his mother set herself to inspire him with a noble ideal of Knighthood. When he reached the age of sixteen or seventeen he became the terror of the Fen Country, and at his fathers Hall of Bourne he gathered a band of youths as wild and reckless as himself, who accepted him as their leader and obeyed him implicitly, however outrageous were his commands.

In all of Hereward’s lawless deeds, however there was no meanness or crafty malice. He took his punishment when it came with equable cheerfulness. He robbed merchants with a high hand, but made reparation liberally counting himself well satisfied with the fun of a fight or the skill of a clever trick. His band of youths met and fought other bands, but they bore no malice when the struggle was over. The only flaw Hereward had in his character was he would not admit anyone was stronger than he, or more handsome, but credit due, he had both attributes in abundance.

Hereward’s father could do nothing to control his son, so Leofric begged an audience with the king (Edward the Confessor), and formally asked for a writ of outlawry against his own son. This done Hereward rode away, followed into exile by Martin Lightfoot, who left Leofric’s service for that of his outlawed son. Though the king’s writ of outlawry might run in Mercia, it did not carry more than nominal weight in Northumbria, where Earl Siward (note the connection for Siward was the father of Waltheof) ruled almost as an independent lord. In Northumbria lived his godfather Gilbert of Ghent, and his castle was known as an excellent training school for young aspirants to the knighthood. Sailing from Dover, Hereward landed at Whitby (this is near Robin Hood's Bay) and made his way to Gilbert’s castle, where he was well received, since the cunning Fleming knew that an outlawry could be reversed at any time, and Leofric’s son might yet come to rule England. (This was before the Norman invasion.) He soon showed himself to be a brave warrior, an unequalled wrestler, and a wary fighter, who outdid them in all manly sports. Gilbet kept in his castle a large white Polar bear which was feared by all for its enormous strength, it was called the Fairy Bear, but it was no fairy. They said it bore some kinship to Earl Siward who had a bear on his crest and he was reputed to be as fierce as one. The bear was kept in a cage and for added security one leg was chained, but this particular day when Hereward was returning with Martin from his morning ride they heard a commotion. Inside the courtyard stood the escaped bear with the broken chain dangling, and with no way of escape stood a petrified girl called Alftruda. The bear made a rush toward the girl and Hereward sprang forward with his battleaxe in his hand. He swung it round his head and split the skull of the furious beast, which fell dead.

A romantic love story follows which results in Hereward leaving for the continent where he fought in the armies of foreign princes. While in Flanders he learned how his aged mother was suffering insults at the hands of the Normans. His father was already dead and the estates had become the property of a Norman. On his return to England he found that the new Norman owners had not only taken the land, but also slain his brother, whose head was set above the door of the house. He revealed himself to some of his relatives and friends collected an armed band and like an avenging thunderbolt, he descended upon the killers and slew them all with his famous sword Brainbiter. Next day fourteen Norman heads had replaced that of his brother above the door. News of Hereward’s exploits spread making him the hero of the countryside. Soon other armed bands joined him and he became the leader of a mixed band of English and Danish warriors, who flocked to join him at his new base at the great Abbey of Ely.(Remember, it was to Ely where the wealthy fled after the Harrowing of the North.)

Visiting the monastery at Peterborough he received from the hands of the Saxon Abbot the military belt and sword, which constituted a kind of knighthood. The Normans used to say that he whose sword had been girt on by a clerk in a long gown was not a true knight but a citizen without prowess, but they soon came to respect him when they measured swords with him. After the abbot of Peterborough died the Normans put one of their own warlike men called Turbold in his place with the intent of subduing the “Saxon rabble” around Peterborough. Hereward feeling no doubt that the treasures of Peterborough Abbey would be better in English hands than those of the hated Norman acted quickly and when Turbold finally rode into Peterborough at the head of an armed force he found that the town had been reduced to ashes and the church stripped of every valuable object it had ever contained.

Hereward made many raids against the Normans and greatly harassed them for four or five years. At last in 1072 William felt it was necessary to take vigorous measures against the English leader. Hereward had established a camp of refuge in the Isle of Ely in the midst of the Fens where it was very difficult to reach him. The ground was treacherous, affording no footing for an army, and yet there was not enough water for the warriors to approach the camp by boat. Archers could find no suitable standing place and the mailed knights dare not take their horses among the soft soil and reedy pools. O que pode ser feito?

William who was always a man of action decided to construct a causeway across the Fens at their narrowest point from Aldreth to Ely and engaged a large number of workmen to cut trenches so that the water might be drained off. Then he raised a bank of stone and turf, but all the time Hereward was on the alert and constantly stopped the operations. He raided here there and everywhere and for months and the Normans could do nothing more than blockade the English rebels. During Williams third attempt at building a causeway, he camped at Brandon. Hereward rode there on his horse, a noble beast called Swallow and on his way met a potter, who agreed to exchange clothes with him and lend him his wares. In this disguise Hereward got into William’s camp and overheard his plans. When William ordered his men to attack Ely the third time Hereward’s men hidden in the reeds set fire to the vegetation and the wind did the rest. The flames rapidly engulfed the Normans and those who tried to escape were either drowned in the marsh or picked off by English arrows.

Then some treacherous monks of Ely, growing weary of the privations they had to suffer, went in secret to the king and offered to show him a way across the Fens. William agreed and a band of Normans was led across the Fens. Hereward and his men were surprised and a thousand of them were killed and their camp captured. Hereward and five of his comrades fought on and crossed the marshes at a place where the enemy did not dare follow. Thus they escaped into Lincolnshire and were hidden by some Saxon fisherman. Still the disaffected English rallied to Hereward and he made constant raids upon the Normans greatly harassing them, killing many, putting the rest to flight and seizing their horses. Then one day he took prisoner his old enemy Ivo Taillebois and promised to give him his liberty on condition that he went to William carrying proposals of peace.

The king was only too glad, for he had come to respect Hereward and preferred to have the brave English leader as a friend rather than as a foe. Hereward went to Winchester where he swore allegiance to William and gained the king’s favour who restored his lands. This is confirmed by the Domesday book. One night however he was set upon by a band of envious Normans and although he managed to kill fifteen of them with his famous sword Brainbiter he was stabed in the back and fell dying, a hero to the end.

The author of the Gesta, writing no more than fifty years after William’s assault on Ely, tells us that he remembers seeing fishermen dredging Norman skeletons, still in their rusty armour, out of the fen. Songs were being sung about Hereward in taverns a hundred years after his death and in the thirteenth century people still visited a ruined wooden castle in the Fens which was known as Hereward’s Castle. But later he was supplanted by another outlaw-hero, Robin Hood, as a symbol of resistance to oppression.

PICTURE-Hereward the Wake leaving home after being outlawed.

Awake the Hereward (written by Emma Borley for BBC Legacies)

Famed through folklore, immortalised through myth, Hereward the Wake, The Banished, has been depicted as an action-hero of Anglo-Saxon descent. It is believed that he was born around 1032 and spent the best years of his life resisting the mighty force of "William the Bastard" (or "Conqueror" as he is perhaps more formally known!).

His adventures and escapades were recorded in prose and verse within just 40 years of his death (ie. De Gestis Herwardi Saxons – "The Exploits of Hereward the Saxon", researched and compiled in the 12th century by monastic scholars and the Domesday book).

However, exactness and detail may well have been lost in the enthusiastic endeavour to remember a hero, so we have to be careful in presenting such history today as time often merges fact and fiction. However, based on the documents listed above, we can perhaps assume the following picture of Hereward the Wake, The Banished.

French resistance

The Normans were not the only invaders England had to endure. About 150 years earlier, Danish forces occupied the Eastern part of England, ousting the Anglo-Saxon rulers. It was not until the King’s School, Ely, old boy, Edward the Confessor became King that Anglo-Saxon rule resumed. After Edward’s death, leaving no heir, an unlikely truce was forged between the Danes and the Anglo-Saxons as they united against the foreign invasion led by William, Duke of Normandy.

William introduced a continental-style feudal system and the Norman and French invaders took over from their Anglo-Saxon and Danish counterparts in all positions of power across the land.

He had a personal vendetta to settle

The new rulers spoke a different language, brought new customs and a new legal system which heavily favoured the invaders.

The invasion, however, was by no means an overnight success. Lincolnshire and parts of East Anglia were densely populated areas at that time. Rich and fruitful soils meant that landowners fought hard to retain their property and their rights. The neighbouring Isle of Ely became the headquarters of the resistance against the Normans - it was a great hiding place with its swamps and marshy terrain providing an almost impenetrable fortress to William’s army.

It was here, at Ely, that Hereward joined the resistance "prompted into action by personal vendetta and patriotism” ('Hereward of the Fens – The Battle of Ely and Involvement of Peterborough and Ely monasteries incorporating De Gestis Herewardi Saxonis', Trevor Bevis 1995).

As a young man, Hereward gained a reputation as a hell-raiser, hanging around in gangs, challenging his father’s authority, and generally upsetting the neighbouring nobility. Worn down by his son’s behaviour, his father eventually banished the young Hereward to the continent with the blessing of King Edward.

Legend recalls that he occupied his time there in battles of honour and love and taking down the odd bear and giant too. However, all was not well on the home front. Word reached the young warrior of tragedy at home. Both his father and brother had been murdered, his mother had been raped and his lands had been seized – all at the hands of the Normans.

To make matters worse, the patriotic Hereward returned to find his beloved country undermined by foreign rule. He learned of a band of resistance fighters holed out in the Isle of Ely and swiftly joined their fight. He quickly won their respect and became their leader, heading a series of damaging attacks against the Normans.

The spoils of war

One of the most famous of those attacks involved the plunder of Peterborough Abbey. At the Abbey, some 24 miles from the Isle of Ely, Abbot Brand (possibly Hereward’s uncle) died and word got out that William was to replace him with the Norman, Turold, reputed to have a stern reputation and strong military leanings. Hereward got wind of this appointment and led his men onto the Abbey to plunder

Peterborough Abbey, now the Cathedral, was plundered its many riches (indeed, prior to the attack, Peterborough was renamed "Gildenburgh" meaning "Golden Borough" a reflection of its vast treasures).

Hereward and his men escaped with hordes of loot from the Abbey back to the waiting cover of the fens. They defended their actions by declaring that they were protecting the religious artefacts from the sacrilegious Norman hands, and acting on behalf of their people.

The Isle of Ely itself was an 11th Century Vietnam. Guerrilla warfare ruled as dense marshland covered tracks, thick reeds absorbed telltale sound and canny knowledge of the layout offered the only guarantee against drowning. Added to that, the land provided well for its protectors: food was plentiful as was wood and water, and with full support of the Monks at the Ely Monastery and the resistance was a credible force.

One of the first things that William did after the invasion was to erect motte and bailey castles in key positions around the country to provide power-bases for his rule. The one at Cambridge gave his soldiers easy access to the Midlands and the North. The fen approach still remained impassable and threatened the Norman strategy with the resistance easily able to target the foreign soldiers on the open road and withdraw quickly back to their inaccessible base.

The Monks at Ely Cathedral supported Hereward with food and water: William knew that he had to act against this band of fen-men. He ordered many attacks on the Isle of Ely, with little success (even going so far as to employ a witch, who bared her bottom at William’s foe in an act of repulsion!). Finally, he found the resistors’ Achilles heel: the Ely monastery whose monks fought along side and gave succour to the rebels.

'Betrayed' Accepting that the Isle of Ely was virtually impenetrable, he decreed that surrounding lands owned by the church and the monks be divided up to eminent Normans who would simply guard the perimeter of the Isle and so starve out the resistance. It is said that the monks got to hear of William’s plan and fled to Bottisham (just outside of Cambridge) taking with them all the treasures of the church. They then sought a peace treaty with the King in return that he honoured their ownership of their lands and possessions.

The church shifted their allegiance and lost the support of their hero. Little more is reported of Hereward other than he escaped from the stranglehold around the Isle of Ely, earned a begrudging respect from the King (who was well aware of Hereward's reputation as a first-class strategist and soldier) and lived the rest of his life resisting the Normans in battles carried out near Peterborough.

Hereward was no myth, but indeed was quite a legend: So, a hero and legend, Hereward will go down in history as the Robin Hood of the fens and the blur between fact and fiction will perhaps never be resolved. Winners always write the history books and so it is hard to find the truth almost 1,000 years on (the Normans had control of the literate section of the community, i.e. the Monks and so a certain amount of spin would have been injected into the recorded histories).

The last true Englishman

However, we can report that a Hereward did indeed exist and was a landowner in the Lincolnshire area (according to Domesday entries) and that a Hereward led the resistance movement based at Ely against the Normans on a mission to reclaim his families land. And, according to Trevor Bevis, it is a Hereward who is depicted as "the strategists dream and an ideal leader of men". Perhaps then, we can best sum up Hereward the Wake as all three – hero, myth and legend, indeed "the last true Englishman".

Hero Myths of the British Race

In Hereward the Wake (or “Watchful”) is found one of those heroes whose date can be ascertained with a fair amount of exactness and yet in whose story occur mythological elements which seem to belong to all ages. The folklore of primitive races is a great storehouse whence a people can choose tales and heroic deeds to glorify its own national hero, careless that the same tales and deeds have done duty for other peoples and other heroes. Hence it happens that Hereward the Saxon, a patriot hero as real and actual as Nelson or George Washington, whose deeds were recorded in prose and verse within forty years of his death, was even then surrounded by a cloud of romance and mystery, which hid in vagueness his family, his marriage, and even his death.

Briefly it may be stated that Hereward was a native of Lincolnshire, and was in his prime about 1070. In that year he joined a party of Danes who appeared in England, attacked Peterborough and sacked the abbey there, and afterward took refuge in the Isle of Ely. Here he was besieged by William the Conqueror, and was finally forced to yield to the Norman. He thus came to stand for the defeated Saxon race, and his name has been passed down as that of the darling hero of the Saxons. For his splendid defence of Ely they forgave his final surrender to Duke William they attributed to him all the virtues supposed to be inherent in the free-born, and all the glorious valor on which the English prided themselves and, lastly, they surrounded his death with a halo of desperate fighting, and made his last conflict as wonderful as that of Roland at Roncesvalles. If Roland is the ideal of Norman feudal chivalry, Hereward is equally the ideal of Anglo-Saxon sturdy manliness and knighthood.

An account of one of Hereward’s adventures as a youth will serve as illustration of the stories told of his prowess. On an enforced visit to Cornwall, he found that King Alef, a petty British chief, had betrothed his fair daughter to a terrible Pictish giant, breaking off, in order to do it, her troth-plight with Prince Sigtryg of Waterford, son of a Danish king in Ireland. Hereward, ever chivalrous, picked a quarrel with the giant and killed him in fair fight, whereupon the king threw him into prison. In the following night, however, the released princess arranged that the gallant Saxon should be freed and sent hot-foot for her lover, Prince Sigtryg. After many adventures Hereward reached the prince, who hastened to return to Cornwall with the young hero. But to the grief of both, they learned upon their arrival that the princess had just been betrothed to a wild Cornish hero, Haco, and the wedding feast was to be held that very day. Sigtryg at once sent a troop of forty Danes to King Alef demanding the fulfilment of the troth-plight between himself and his daughter, and threatening vengeance if it were broken. To this threat the king returned no answer, and no Dane came back to tell of their reception.

Sigtryg would have waited till morning, trusting in the honor of the king, but Hereward disguised himself as a minstrel and obtained admission to the bridal feast, where he soon won applause by his beautiful singing. The bridegroom, Haco, in a rapture offered him any boon he liked to ask, but he demanded only a cup of wine from the hands of the bride. When she brought it to him he flung into the empty cup the betrothal ring, the token she had sent to Sigtryg, and said: “I thank thee, lady, and would reward thee for thy gentleness to a wandering minstrel I give back the cup, richer than before by the king thoughts of which it bears the token.” The princess looked at him, gazed into the goblet, and saw her ring then, looking again, she recognized her deliverer and knew that rescue was at hand.

While men feasted Hereward listened and talked, and found out that the forty Danes were prisoners, to be released on the morrow when Haco was sure of his bride, but released useless and miserable, since they would be turned adrift blinded. Haco was taking his lovely bride back to his own land, and Hereward saw that any rescue, to be successful, must be attempted on the march.

Returning to Sigtryg, the young Saxon told all that he had learned, and the Danes planned an ambush in the ravine where Haco had decided to blind and set free his captives. The whole was carried out exactly as Hereward arranged it. The Cornishmen, with the Danish captives, passed first without attack next came Haco, riding grim and ferocious beside his silent bride, he exulting in his success, she looking eagerly for any signs of rescue. As they passed Hereward sprang from his shelter, crying, “Upon them, Danes, and set your brethren free!” and himself struck down Haco and smote off his head. There was a short struggle, but soon the rescued Danes were able to aid their deliverers, and the Cornish guards were all slain the men of King Alef, never very zealous for the cause of Haco, fled, and the Danes were left masters of the field.

Sigtryg had in the meantime seen to the safety of the princess, and now, placing her between himself and Hereward, he escorted her to the ship, which soon brought them to Waterford and a happy bridal. The Prince and Princess of Waterford always recognized in Hereward their deliverer and best friend, and in their gratitude wished him to dwell with them always but the hero’s roving and daring temper forbade his settling down, but rather urged him on to deeds of arms in other lands, where he quickly won a renown second to none. Hereward the Wake From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia "Hereward" redirects here. For the college in Coventry, see Hereward College. Hereward the Wake 097-Hereward fighting Normans.png Hereward fighting Normans, illustration from Cassell's History of England (1865) Bornœ.1035 Diedœ.1072 Movement Saxon Anti-Norman rebellion Religion Roman Catholicism Hereward the Wake (also known as Hereward the Outlaw or Hereward the Exile, c. 1035 – c.1072) was an 11th-century leader of local resistance to the Norman conquest of England. Hereward's base, when leading the rebellion against the Norman rulers, was in the Isle of Ely, and according to legend he roamed The Fens, covering North Cambridgeshire, Southern Lincolnshire and West Norfolk, leading popular opposition to William the Conqueror.

Hereward is an Old English name, composed of the elements here "army" and weard "guard" (cognate with the Old High German name Heriwart).[1] The epithet "the Wake" is recorded in the late 14th century, and may mean "the watchful", or derive from the Anglo-Norman Wake family who later claimed descent from him.


Hereward

Hereward was born into turbulent times in England. He was a mercenary warrior who turned rebel against the injustices of the aftermath of the Norman invasion. William of Normandy was putting his own followers into the lands owned by Anglo-Saxon lords and thegns. Any resistance was brutally put down. Hereward found his own relatives massacred and in turn killed the Normans who did it, making himself outlaw.

He joined forces with King Swein of Denmark on the Isle of Ely and raided Peterborough abbey, which had a Norman abbot. William was so incensed that he marched to Ely himself to deal with the 'outlaw' and his band. King Swein left, the nearby monks were blackmailed into changing sides but Hereward and his band fought on.

Eventually the Norman might conquered Ely but Hereward, with a small band of followers, escaped and hid in the forests, continuing to thwart William for some time longer.


Meet the medieval re-enactors raising awareness of 'Hereward the Wake' and money for men's mental health

The name 'Hereward the Wake' is mentioned as a figure in the history of the Fens.

He led a rebellion against William the Conqueror's forces, from his base in Ely.

But local historians feel he should have a higher profile in the area.

Today a group of medieval re-enactors set off on a march following in his footsteps, to raise awareness of Hereward and also raise money for the charity Manhealth.

We're here remembering those who fought, those who fell, those who were oppressed by the conquest. For me personally as well, I am doing this challenge today for a mental health charity in recognition of the fact that you have to keep fighting, that we all need support sometimes. Even if you're a 6ɲ warrior, head to toe in steel, you need to talk about your problems sometimes.

Lewis Kirkbride, 'Hereward the Wake'

They set off on a march re-creating a route 'Hereward the Wake' took between Peterborough and Ely 951 years ago.

They also re-enacted Hereward's first stop to Peterborough Cathedral - what in those days was a monastery.

This is where he stole gold and silver to fund his rebellion against William the Conqueror who had invaded from France in 1066.

We're delighted to welcome the recreation of Hereward's journey from Peterborough to Ely. It was painful memories when he sacked the cathedral back in the years before the time of the Norman conquest but we're delighted to support this charitable cause and all that it's about.

After this, the group began their two day march to Ely which is where Hereward was based during his unsuccessful rebellion.

They were following a path known as the Hereward Way to raise his profile as a historical figure in the Fens.

We're highlighting this because he's a cultural heritage icon of the Fenlands that disappeared from our history. We're trying to bring him back into the forefront and create festivals around him.

By the time they reach Ely tomorrow, the aim is to have brought more attention to Hereward the man and the issue of men's mental health.


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Hereward was an 11th century English thegn, mercenary and outlaw, destined to live forever in legend as Hereward ‘the Wake’, a heroic leader of native resistance against William the Conqueror. Elements of his story inspired tales of similar medieval outlaw figures such as Fulk Fitzwarin, Eustace the Monk and of course Robin Hood, who replaced Hereward in the English popular imagination.

In reality Hereward seems to have been a local thegn or landholder, holding various estates in Lincolnshire from the abbeys of Peterborough and Crowland. Two sources, the Gesta Herewardi and Historia Croylandis, claim Hereward was the son of Earl Leofric of Mercia, while the Victorian novelist tried to pass him off as the son of Leofric of Bourne and Lady Godiva (she of the famous nude ride through Coventry). However the historian Peter Rex has recently suggested that his father was really one Asketil, a local thegn of Danish descent. The details of Hereward’s tenancy, preserved in Domesday Book, suggest he was more than a mere man of the abbey. In contrast to lower-ranking thegns, whose rents were largely dependent on their ecclesiastical lords, Hereward negotiated his with the abbot. This might elevate Hereward to the status of a king’s thegn, one who attended upon the king in person and led troops in time of war.

Contemporary references to Hereward, sparse as they are, tend to support the legend. Domesday Book records that he ‘fled the country’ shortly after 1062, which accords with his first period of outlawry and exile in the tales. According to the Gesta Herewardi, one of the earliest versions of the legend, Hereward was shipwrecked off the coast of Guines and served for a time as a mercenary in Flanders. Remarkably, one ‘miles Herivvardi’ - ‘Hereward the soldier’ - appears on a charter at Cambrai, dated 1065. This is the only surviving instance of the name in the area from this time, and could well be a passing reference to the Englishman in exile. Shortly afterwards, the Gesta tells us, Hereward travelled to St Omer and there met Torfrida, who became his wife. Sadly, there are no certain references to Torfrida, though there is nothing unlikely about Hereward getting married.

The Gesta tells other stories of Hereward’s adventures in exile, some more plausible than others. He is said to have travelled to Cornwall and Ireland as well as Flanders, fought and slew an enormous bear, and rescued a Cornish princess from an unwanted marriage. In Flanders he supposedly joined an expedition against ‘Scaldemarilad’ (probably a series of islands in the Scheldt estuary) this tale may be consistent with the campaigns of Robert the Frisian on behalf of his father Baldwin, Count of Flanders, in the early 1060s. Again, there is nothing unlikely about a wandering exile and sword-for-hire taking military service with a local nobleman.

After 1066, and William of Normandy’s successful invasion of England, Hereward returned to his native land. The Gesta tells us he came home to discover his father’s lands had been taken over by the Normans, who had killed his brother and nailed the boy’s head over the doorway of the hall. Hereward went berserk, stormed into the hall and slaughtered every Norman he found inside. He then went to Peterborough Abbey, where he was knighted ‘in the English fashion’. He briefly returned to Flanders to cool his heels, before returning again to England in September 1067 to lead a revolt against the Normans.

A few of Hereward’s exploits against the Normans can be pieced together. The Gesta, the Liber Eliensis (another early version of his legend), and the Hyde or Warenne Chronicle record his killing one Frederick, brother-in-law to William de Warenne, first Earl of Surrey. Hereward is said to have ambushed Frederick in his house and killed him on the spot it may be that Frederick was serving in the Norman army against the Ely rebels, and Hereward slew him in what could be termed a medieval commando raid. Thanks to this deed, a breach was opened between Hereward and de Warenne that nothing could mend. Hereward is also supposed to have shot an arrow at the earl himself, who was saved when the missile ricoheted off the nose-bar of his helmet.

By 1071 the Isle of Ely had become the last bastion of native resistance to the Conqueror. Hereward and his band, probably local men, chose to plunder Peterborough Abbey and take away the‘red gold’ stored there. This, they claimed, was to prevent the new Norman abbot from having the treasure, and use it to pay off Danish troops sent to help the English by Sweyn II, King of Denmark. The Danes promptly betrayed Hereward and sailed home with the gold justice was done when a storm blew up at sea and sent their entire fleet to the bottom. Hereward’s failed effort to recruit Danish aid may hint at Danish ancestry, and perhaps his desire to see a King of Denmark on the English throne in place of William or the Godwinssons.

Eventually William himself came with an army to besiege Ely and build a fortress on the edges of the fens. Matthew Paris says the remains of this structure could still be seen in the early 13th century and was known as Hereward’s stronghold. At one point William is said to have procured the services of a witch to curse the defenders from the top of a wooden tower this came to naught when Hereward set fire to the tower, witch and all. On another occasion William sent his army in a frontal attack on the isle, and an entire column of soldiers was drowned when their pontoon bridge overturned and tipped them into the black waters. It was said their skeletons were still being dredged from the fens sixty years later.

Whatever the truth of all these heroic tales, William had his way in the end. The isle was stormed, apparently after the monks of Crowland had betrayed their countrymen and showed the Normans a secret path to the rebel camp. Most of the defenders surrendered, to be imprisoned or mutilated, with the exception of Hereward: the Anglo-Saxon chronicle records that he refused to submit and ‘led his men out valiantly.’ His fate afterwards is a mystery. Some accounts claim he made his peace with William, like many others, and died of a peaceful old age. Others say he was betrayed and murdered by a band of Normans. By the time of Domesday Book in 1085, he was certainly no longer in Lincolnshire, for his lands were in possession of Ogier the Breton. It may be Hereward had died, or was murdered as the tales claim, or perhaps he joined the exodus of Englishmen who chose to leave Norman-ruled England and seek a new life in the East. According to the Historia Croylandis, he was buried at Crowland Abbey.

Happily, the Wake lives again. In recent times a local society has been formed, the Wake Hereward Project, devoted to restoring the memory of Lincolnshire’s great folk hero and inspiring further research into his life and times. For those interested in joining the quest, a link to the website and Twitter account can be seen below:


Hereward History

The Hamlet of Hereward was established in the late 1860's which is now known as East Garafraxa. Our family has been farming in this area for over 5 generations and has recently started Hereward Farms where we will be growing lavender to sell and make products.

"Hereward" took its name from fiction. " Hereward the Wake " published in 1866, was a bestselling historical romance for English author Charles Kingsley. It recounted the adventurous life of Hereward, the son of Lady Godiva, and his exile as a "wake" or outlaw in the last days of Saxon England, his two marriages, his rebellion against the Conqueror and his eventual capitulation to the King and restoration as lord of the Manor.

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At the corner of the 9th Line and 15 Sideroad (County Road 5), on the road to Belwood, a solitary house is the only tangible reminder of the Hamlet of Hereward. The old home is the last of the cluster of buildings that surrounded the intersection and formed the heart of an active rural community.

Alex Burnett (Stephen's Great-Great Uncle) came from Antrim Ireland with his brother John (Stephen's Great-Great-Grandfather) around the time of the potato famine. Alex owned "The Rossin House" hotel at Hereward, on east half lot 16, Concession 9, Garafraxa. He also had the Post Office for a time and lived on the west half, lot 16, Concession 10

John Burnett and Sarah Phair married on December 24, 1862 and lived on Sarah's Father's farm west half, lot 3, Concession 9, Garafraxa. Sarah and John had eight children with four dying in infancy. John had visited Ireland in 1887 and returned to Canada in poor health. He died the following year.

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The postcard features the Southside of Broadway in Orangeville dated October 22, 1914, and has a postmark from the Hereward Post Office.

Black and white postcard of the business district on the south side of Broadway in Orangeville from John Street to Mill Street. One green Canada postage stamp on the back in the top right corner.

Inscription on back handwritten, brown ink -

Miss Martha Graham Acton, Ont. / Oct 22 Arrived safely about six o'clock tonight. About five miles out of Acton it poured and we thought we were going to have to seek shelter for the night but got along fine. Mamie


Peterborough Cathedral

Peterborough Cathedral is a monastic cathedral located in Cambridgeshire, England. The Norman cathedral you see today was dedicated to Saints Peter, Paul and Andrew. The building is remarkable among medieval cathedrals in Great Britain because of its unusual triple front and generally asymmetrical appearance.

The first abbey was established in Peterborough (originally called Medeshamstede) in 655 AD by King Peada, son of King Penda of Mercia. When Peada died, his brother Wulfhere continued the work. Bede mentions in his “Ecclesiastical History of the English People” that Saxulf was the founding abbot of this monastery. Saxulf later became Bishop of Mercia. This community was destroyed by Viking raiders in 870. One chronicle mentions the brother of one of the Danish leaders was killed in the initial attack on the abbey and the leader ordered the slaughter of all the monks. The monks were buried in a mass grave and a carved stone marked the spot called the Hedda Stone. This stone can still be seen today. The abbey was revived by Dunstan, Archbishop of Canterbury in 972. The town near the abbey was eventually named Peterburgh after the saint the monastery was dedicated to.

The Hedda Stone. Image by NotFromUtrecht, Wikimedia Commons

Abbot Leofric was the last Anglo-Saxon abbot of Peterborough before the Norman Conquest. He was the nephew of Earl Leofric and his famous wife Lady Godiva. Abbot Leofric fought with the last Anglo-Saxon King Harold against William the Conqueror and the Normans at the Battle of Hastings but became ill and was forced to return to the abbey where he died on November 1, 1066. The abbey was greatly damaged during the uprising of local folk-hero Hereward the Wake against the Norman invaders. The church was repaired only to be destroyed by fire in 1116.

Construction of the current building began in 1118. It isn’t well known that Peterborough had a collection of St. Thomas Becket’s relics. Abbot Benedict was prior of Canterbury when Becket was murdered there in 1170. Benedict became Abbot of Peterborough in 1177 and found he needed funds to complete the nave. He traveled to Canterbury and returned with some of Becket’s relics. Pilgrims flocked to Peterborough and the funds were raised to complete the nave. The cathedral was finally consecrated in 1238.

The structure of the building remains essentially the same as it was upon consecration. The original wooden ceiling survives in the nave and is the only one in the country and only one of four wooden ceilings from this period in Europe. The Norman Tower was rebuilt in the Decorated Gothic style circa 1350 and the addition of Perpendicular fan vaulting was made between 1496 and 1508. During the Dissolution of the Monasteries under King Henry VIII, the abbey of Peterborough was closed with its lands and properties confiscated by the king. In an effort to increase his control over the church in this area of the country, Henry created a new bishop and Peterborough Abbey church became a Cathedral thus allowing it to survive the Dissolution.

There were two queens buried in Peterborough from the Tudor era. The first was Catherine of Aragon, the Spanish princess who was Henry VIII’s first wife. Her grave is in the North Aisle of the cathedral near the High Altar. Mary Queen of Scots was buried here on the opposite side of the altar after her execution during the reign of Queen Elizabeth I in 1587. However her grave in Peterborough is now empty. Mary’s son, who became King James I of England upon the death of Elizabeth I, had his mother re-interred in Westminster Abbey in 1612.

Grave of Katherine of Aragon in Peterborough Cathedral

The cathedral was ravaged during the English Civil War. Nearly all the stained glass was destroyed and the altar and reredos, cloisters and Lady Chapel were demolished. Some of this damage was repaired in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. The Central tower and the west front were in danger of collapse and were rebuilt in the 1880’s along with the interior pillars and the choir. In the 1960’s, new figures were added to the west front. After a disastrous fire in November of 2001, a cleaning and restoration process has been undertaken.

An interesting historical side story is that of Peterborough Abbey’s most valued relic: the arm of Saint Oswald. Oswald was a convert to Christianity and King of Northumbria from 634 to 642. He was born in 604 and while a youth, his father died and a rival took the throne forcing Oswald into exile. He returned to Northumbria in 634 to raise an army. As he prepared to fight a much larger force, he raised a cross and prayed for victory. Oswald won the battle and ruled as king of Northumbria until his death.

While Oswald was king, he became known for his piety and generosity. During the celebration of an Easter feast, he supposedly gave away all the silver plates along with the food to the poor who had suffered through a harsh winter. The chronicles say his chaplain, Bishop Aidan blessed Oswald, saying “may this arm that has been so generous never parish”. When Oswald died in battle against King Penda of Mercia in 642, his arm was taken to Bamburgh where it remained uncorrupted. About 1000 AD, a monk stole the arm from Bamburgh and took it to his abbot at Peterborough in an effort to gain favor. The arm remained the primary relic of Peterborough and the chapel still has a watch-tower where the monks safeguarded it day and night. St. Oswald’s arm disappeared from the chapel during the reformation along with its silver casket.


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